Avirup Ghosh


Russian film director Ilya Khrzhanovsky’s 4 (‘Chetyre’) (2005) offers us glimpses into the lives of Marina, Volodya and Oleg and thereby shows us how trapped the human condition is by the encroachments of mindless technological progress and a general disjunction between the past which fails at bequeathing something meaningful to the present and the future that is so bleak and distant that it denies the value of the here-and-now. Hard to place tonally, 4 is about pessimism generated by the individual’s irrevocable alienation from the State and ultimately from itself. Although it does not exactly resist generic taxonomy, it certainly by-passes classifications such as dystopia, science-fiction, futurism, etc.


Avant-garde; Aesthetics; Cinema; Films; Russia; Cultural Studies

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